• Rudder: Placed aft of the propeller blades. When the submarine turns, it pivots its center of gravity; therefore, a rudder aft of the propeller blades attains higher turning moment due to its distance from the center of gravity. The velocity of the water behind the propeller blades is also greater than the velocity around the submarine, thus allowing for a higher velocity distribution across the rudder surface area, which then increases the lifting forces induced by the rudder. The rudder’s material composition consists of an EPS foam inner core and a hard fiberglass shell that allows for a light, yet strong, rudder capable of sustaining high velocities without deforming.
• Kort Nozzle and support: The nozzle is placed around the propeller blades to funnel as much fluid mass flow as possible, and to reduce propeller-induced cavitation and thus increase propulsion efficiency.
A nozzle also enables an attachment point for the rudder. The nozzle itself will be supported by four fins that attach to the propeller cone through the use of fasteners. The Kort nozzle composition consists of four 3-D printed PLA pieces which the pieces to be fiberglass coated. The fiberglass coating allows precise nozzle profile to reduce drag.
• Diving planes: Placed at the submarine’s aft, they generate lift forces for diving and elevating the submarine. Current designs utilize a low-drag, high-lift force NACA 0021 spaded profile. A spaded dive plane design reduces propeller-induced cavitation and drag. The dive planes’ material composition matches the rudders material composition.
• Steering and Control: Mimics motorcycle controls, utilizing side-to-side handlebar motions to control the rudder and pedals for propulsion and a rotating handlebar to control the submarine’s dive planes. The handle bar is attached to a pivoting plate that directs push/pull cables to the rudder and dive planes accordingly.